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Points horse in Spanish

In historic times it is documented that the Iberian Cavalry achieved fame as an effective and fearless foe, much of their success being due to their fine mounts. Two thousand years ago, the famous Athenian cavalry leader, writer and philosopher, Xenophen, much of whose treatise on equitation is applicable today, praised the "gifted Iberian horse", and Homer also refers to them in his "Iliad", written about 1,100B.C. Artistic impressions of the Spanish horse of that period have quite striking resemblances to the present day horse. Romans established what appears to be the first well organised stud farms to produce mounts. Most of the horses for these first studs came from the present day region of Andalucia. The strength, agility and speed, together with a remarkable aptitude for training, made the Spanish horse prized in an era when a man's life literally depended on his horse. The turbulent history of the Iberian Peninsula, and the later explorations of the sea-going Spaniards were to have great influence on the distribution of the Spanish horse to all parts of the then known world.
No breed has had more influence than the Spanish Andalusian on the modern horse. From Welsh Mountain Ponies, the Lipizzaner, the American Quarter horse, the German, Danish and Dutch Warmbloods, the Irish Connemara, the Peruvian Paso, the English Hackney and Cleveland Bay to the Hungarian Kladruber - all find their roots in the Spanish Andalusian.
The Spanish mounts of the Conquistadors were the first horses to set foot on the Americas in modern times. Herman Cortes proclaimed "After God, we owed our victory to the horses". Certainly that Andalusian blood lives on in Americas today.
In 1580, 24 mares, 3 stallions and 6 colts were sent from Spain to Lipizza by Archduke Charles II to provide the foundation stock for the Imperial Stud. From this beginning evolved the famous Spanish Riding School of Vienna. Spanish horses were the preferred mounts of royalty, aristocracy and the acknowledged Riding masters of the times. Such Masters as Xenophon, Giraldo, Aquilar, Pluvinal, Newcastle, La Guériniére and Andrade all sang the praises of the Spanish horse in a time span of over two thousand years. The magnificent paintings of such artists as Velázquez have shown us the arrogant monarchs on their remarkable steeds.
The Australian Andalusian is an example of a beautiful, well balanced and athletic animal with great presence. Basically a substantial horse with ample bone and muscle. The horse should be alert but calm, movements brisk and energetic but absolutely predictable. The gait is naturally stylish with good extension. There are no height restrictions for the Australian Andalusian. ABOUT THE BREEDThe true origin of the Spanish Horse is not a certain science; what is known is that in the pre-Roman era, there were already references to horses in what is today known as spain.
Roman authors such as Plutarch, pliny the Elder and Seneca speak of the Hispanic horse as a beautiful, docile, arrogant and brave horse, ideal for war and for the sports that were carried out in the circuses at that time.
During the reign of King Philip 11, the equine realm of his Kingdom was organized, laying down definitive bases so that the Purebred Spanish Horse was able to reach its peak during subsequent years. This was possible with the creation of the Royal Stables in Cordoba, where he gathered together the best stallions and mares from all the provinces bordering the Guadalquivir River, which at that time, were the most productive in the breeding of horses.
Thus, the Royal Stud Farm was created, which after time became known as the National Stud Farm. A multitude of horses were exported to the American continents; these horses played a decisive role on its exploration, and were the origin of and the basis for most of the breeds that have subsequently been raised there.
In Europe, Spain was enjoying its Golden Age; at that time, the most treasured gift from a Spanish monarch was one of the nation's magnificent horses. Spanish horses soon earned repute and were decisive in the birth of many Central European breeds. There are currently more than 1,300 Purebred Spanish Horse breeders in Spain, and more than 400 throughout the rest of the world. Remember that there are about 80,000 horses throughout the whole world, bred in more than 60 countries. Breeds such as the Lipizzaner, Lusitano, Paso Fino and the Warm-bloods of Central Europe all owe their ancestry to the Spanish Horse. PURE SPANISH HORSE (PURA RAZA ESPANOLA) The Stud Book for the Pure Spanish Horse (Pura Raza Espanola) was formed in 1973 with the entry of the original horses imported from Spain. All horse in this Studbook must trace back in an unbroken line to horses registered in the Stud Book of Spain. As of 2003, all horses must be microchipped, DNA tested and Parent Validated to enter this Studbook. All horses exhibited at AHAA National or State Championships and at Agricultural Shows throughout Australia, must be registered in the Pure Spanish Stud Book of the AHAA. The records of the Pure Spanish Studbook of the AHAA were used by Spanish Authorities to dual register some Pure Spanish Horses in the Stud Book of Spain. Horses dual registered in the Stud Book of Spain are commonly referred to as PRE (Pura Raza Espanola). In Australia there is no difference between these horses and those carrying registration in the Stud Book of the AHAA. They are all recognized in Australia as Pure Spanish Horses. STANDARD OF EXCELLENCE FOR THE PURE SPANISH HORSE PROTOTYPE
(General Morphological Characteristics)
The body is mesmorphic, of balanced confirmation, rounded and well proportioned, with a straight or sub-convex profile
. The horse is bright and energetic, with fluid elastic movements, considerable elevation and extension and an acute facility for collection.
(Individual Morphological Characteristics)
The Head is of medium length, lean and rectangular, with a straight or sub-convex profile.
The Ears are of medium size, well-placed on the head, separate, slightly diverging, very lively and flexible.
The Forehead is slightly broad and discretely rounded, sub-convex or flat, transversally.
The Eyes are bright, alert, large and triangular in shape, with a gentle, subtle orbital arch.
The Face is straight or slightly convex, moderately narrow and lean.
The Nose is smooth from the face, casting a curved projection with light narrowing at the end.
The Nostrils are long and shaped like a comma, but not prominent.
The Cheeks are ample and muscular, with a long, slightly arched line.
The Neck is slightly arched and of medium length, the head must be well connected and the base of the neck should meet the withers in an unbroken line. The neck is well placed between the head and the back.
The Neck Mane is strong and thick.
The Trunk is well proportioned and robust.
The Withers are wide and muscular and well defined.
The Back is well muscled, straight and uninterrupted.
The Loin is short and wide, horizontal or a bit arched and joined in good proportion to the back and croup.
The Croup is of moderate size, long and wide (but slightly longer than it is wide), rounded and gently sloping.
The Tail begins about midway on the slope of the croup (commencing at the same height as the hip bone) and remains close to the body, sloping with the angle of the croup. The tail sports a long and thick mane. THE FRONT EXTREMITIES
The Shoulder is well muscled and oblique.
The Arm is strong and starts from the well-muscled and oblique shoulder in an incline. Arm and shoulder are in proportion to each other.
The Forearm is strong and plumb.
The Knee is well developed and slender.
The Cannon is of proportionate length and straight, tendons clean.
The Fetlock is dry, lean and well defined.
The Pastern should be an appropriate length, not excessively on or short, with good slope. It should be flexible for bending, with good bounce, but never weak.The Hooves are dense, strong, of good size in proportion to the body and perfectly plumb. THE REAR EXTREMITIES
The Thigh and Buttocks are muscular.
The Gaskin is large, the Hocks strong and ample, with clean lines.
The region below the Tarsus (ankle) joints, have the same characteristics as those described above for the front extremities. COAT
Dominant coat colours are greys, bays and other admissible colours, with the exception of broken coloured horses. GENERAL PROPORTION AND BODY SIZE
Overall, the model of the Pure Spanish Horse is an animal of great beauty and harmony, no matter the age of the horse.
As a criterion for determining the level of development at 3 years, the height is measured from the withers, which should be a minimum of 1.52 metres for stallions and 1.50 metres for mares. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
Movements are agile, harmonious and rhythmic, with good elevation and extension. The Pure Spanish horse has a great gift for learning a variety of postures and competition styles, with a special predisposition for collection and for turning on the haunches. The horse responds easily to command. The Pure Spanish Horse has an extremely sensitive mouth, resulting in obedience and extraordinary comfort for the rider. CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
The model of the Pure Spanish Horse is of even temper and hardy, accommodating and noble, lively yet docile. It exhibits a rapid and intense understanding with the rider. DEFECTS
Head: Concave fronto-nasal profiles; excessively massive head; ears that are too large or drooping or do not move well; a forehead that is too broad and flat on the transverse; protruding orbital eye sockets; round or bugged eyes; a square, broad nose; round nostrils; excessively fat cheeks or jowls; and a profile that is square.
Neck: A neck that is too short, or is of low insertions, or is too compact (stocky) where it meets the head. The presence of a too heavy, or a fallen crest, or of a deer, or ewe neck.
Body: A trunk that is narrow and somewhat shallow; low or ill defined withers; a swayed back, or one that slopes forward – roached back; sunken, poorly muscled loin; a narrow and overall sunken chest; flat upper rib cage, or excessively rounded croup, horizontal, separated or cleft croup too rounded or too sloping; a backbone that is too high or sunken; uneven upper contour; point of tail too high or protruding.
Extremities: Crooked or unaligned extremities, especially in the lower leg region. Pasterns that are too long or too short and vertical.
Movement: Not enough elevation; irregular movements; dishing (paddling).